Reflections after Class

One of those questions came up in class tonight with a group of MA students discussing Peter Fritzsche’s Life and Death in the Third Reich (Cambridge, MA, 2008), a question where I grow perhaps too animated, maybe conveying impatience, even arrogance, or, if I’m lucky, simply passion. What was the difference between communism under Stalin and nazism under Hitler?

The differences are stark, but there’s that pesky word “socialism” and the collectivist rhetoric that is so easily conflated or confused with “collectivization,” never mind the existence of economic plans, mass murder, and a host of apparently shared phenomena commonly subsumed under the heading of “totalitarianism.” So why does this question sometimes cause me to push back instead of letting students gradually begin to understand, taking as many intermediary steps as they need to get there?

I would like to blame the heat and my tiredness after a forty-eight-hour power loss at home, and there’s something to that. But this is also one of those topics that can get my goat under better conditions, unless I am prepared for it. I am ready these days when teaching History 100 (“Western Civilization”), but the question took me by surprise in the context of a graduate survey of modern Europe. I am beginning to think it should not have.

Something about this question can elude or confound even well-informed graduate students like those in my current class. Something is getting lost in translation from a past that grows more distant, more remote. The words “nazi” and “socialist” and “communist” are on many lips in these United States, but they’re employed in our own contemporary struggles over ideology, identity, and politics. They help us to create meaning in our own world, but this circumstance complicates the already difficult task of understanding the Germany and Soviet Union that existed in the 1930s and 1940s.

Perhaps it’s time to choose some primary sources for the students to analyze in at least a portion of our next class.

One response

  1. I’m an old engineer who has taken a few history courses, then read many books. I don’t think I could give you a very good answer to your question about comparing Hitler and Stalin.

    But I have given some thought to one I consider much more important: the poisonous comparisons of Hitler and Stalin to people, parties, and ideas in our own domestic politics.

    I’m depressed by the number of times I see President Obama compared to Hitler or Stalin, or called a “Communist” or “Fascist.” The people who make these arguments are both ignorant and dangerous: ignorant because the don’t know enough to recognize the great differences between FBI (or Secret Service, or ATF, among others) and the SS, dangerous because they transform what should be a debate about political choices into an uncompromising battle between good and evil.

    Maybe the answer to Franklin’s question is “We can’t.”

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.