“Wilhelm Groener, Officering, and the Schlieffen Plan.” PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2006.

“The Bavarian Army and French Civilians in the War of 1870–71.” MA thesis, Universität Augsburg, 1994.

Articles and Chapters

“Die deutschen Greueltaten im Krieg 1870/71 am Beispiel der Bayern.” In Kriegsgreuel: Die Entgrenzung der Gewalt in kriegerischen Konflikten vom Mittelalter bis ins 20. Jahrhundert, edited by Sönke Neitzel and Daniel Hohrath, 223–39. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2008.

“Bürgerliche und adlige Krieger: Zum Verhältnis zwischen sozialer Herkunft und Berufskultur im wilhelminischen Offizierkorps.” In Adel und Bürgertum in Deutschland II: Entwicklungslinien und Wendepunkte im 20. Jahrhundert, edited by Heinz Reif, 25–63. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2001.

“The Bavarian Army and French Civilians in the War of 1870–1871: A Cultural Interpretation.” 1 War in History 8, no. 3 (2001): 271–93. DOI: 10.1177/096834450100800302.

“Particularistic Traditions in a National Profession: Reflections on the Wilhelmine Army Officer Corps.” In Newsletter des Arbeitskreis Militärgeschichte e.V. 11 (2/2000): 16–18. Archived at Portal Militärgeschichte.

“Christof Vischer: Wie man junge Fürsten und Herren aufferzihen solle, 1573.” In Fürstenspiegel der Frühen Neuzeit, edited by Hans-Otto Mühleisen, Theo Stammen, and Michael Philipp, 219–27 (biography and commentary) and 228–51 (source excerpts). Frankfurt a.M.: Insel Verlag, 1997.2

Book Reviews

Review of Milena Veenis, Material Fantasies: Expectations of the Western Consumer World among East Germans (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press in cooperation with the Foundation for the History of Technology, 2012). In Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis 9, no. 4 (2012): 93–94.

Review of Heidi Mehrkens, Statuswechsel: Kriegserfahrung und nationale Wahrnehmung im Deutsch-Französischen Krieg 1870/71 (Essen: Klartext Verlag, 2008). In H-Soz-u-Kult (November 6, 2008),

Teaching Aids

“Chemical Warfare.” In History in Dispute, vol. 5, World War II, edited by Dennis E. Showalter, 104–7. Detroit: St. James Press, 2001.

“Hitler and the United States.” In ibid., 132–35.

“Resistance Movements.” In ibid., 244–46.

Select Posts at History of Knowledge

“Organizing and Communicating Historical Knowledge: Some Personal Observations.” February 3, 2017.

“Sources: Child Labor in the United States.” May 1, 2017.


  1. Reprinted in Warfare in Europe 1825–1914, edited by Peter Wilson, 135–58. The International Library of Essays on Military History, edited by Jeremy Black (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2006). 
  2. I used the specimen in the Oettingen-Wallersteinsche Bibliothek, housed at the University of Augsburg. Since then, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek has digitized its own copy. See urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00039783-7

Ignorance or Deliberate Abuse?

I can’t decide whether the White House is deliberately insulting our intelligence with Bush’s recent appeasement accusations or if they really don’t know anything about Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement. Chamberlain isn’t criticized in history for talking to Hitler, but rather for giving away the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia and with it that country’s means to defend itself against Germany. The difference is not trivial. And what does McCain’s echoing of Bush’s remarks tell us about him? Did he also not learn this bit of history? Or is this just politics? Be that as it may, Kevin Levin is right about this being a teachable moment. The “Hardball” video he posted on his blog is hilarious and sad at the same time.

This blog post originally appeared on my old history blog, Clio and Me, on this date.

Germany and the United States on the Eve of the Cold War

Almost anyone who has lived in Germany over the past sixty years will find the following video very strange indeed. It appeared in the early days of the occupation, when the Cold War was still only on the horizon and a strict anti-fraternization policy made sense to the U.S. military leadership.

By the way, if you are a Dr. Suess fan, listen to the language. I’ve read many of his stories to my son, and I can hear the hand he had in this film.

If that film appears ridiculous, here is a piece of wartime propaganda from Walt Disney to put it into context.

By the way, Dr. Suess also addressed the question of war and peace in a famous children’s book from the Cold War, The Butter Battle Book, in which one side ate its bread butter side up, and the other butter side down. This led to mistrust, the erection of a wall, and an arms race.

This blog post originally appeared on my old history blog, Clio and Me, on this date.